Vadyba ir valdymas pagal ekonomikos terminų žodyną planavimą, organizavimą, motyvavimą ir kontrolę organizacijos tikslams pasiekti. Fabijonas Saulius Butkus. Vilnius Gediminas Technical F. S. Butkus. number of professionals in .. Butkus, F. S. Vadyba: organizacijos veiklos ope-. Socialiniai mokslai, vadyba ir administravimas (03 S) . Lithuanian researchers Butkus (), Butkus (), Šalčius (), Zakarevičius (), . Probleminių žmonių motyvavimas kaip organizacijos potencialo panaudojimo didinimo.

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Unlike the All-Union ministers of culture, several Lithuanian ministers had received educations in the arts or humani- ties: Did their approaches differ? Soviet and Nazi Rule,ed. The category includes cultural intellectuals, policy-makers, artists, and other employees of cultural sector. Interview with an economist, Aleksandras Vasiliauskas, Vilnius, December Instead, I will use several typical examples to highlight the key features of the economic mode of ordering the Soviet cultural sector.

Finally, as Hayles emphasised, cybernetic steering underwent such a vast number of trans- lations in various fields that it would be particularly difficult to establish a ge- nealogical relationship.

A History of Soviet Cybernetics Unfortunately, studies of how the statesmen of the independent Lithuania regarded their Imperial Russian administrative legacy are lacking at this time. However, it provided a concentrated sample of the discourse, which used economics to rationalise culture along several lines: A statistical system of measurement via indicators was a Western European invention, not a Russian one, 17 and such a system, consisting of indicators or categories for statistical calculations, was developed for every branch of Soviet industry and eventually put in place in the late s.

Guided by these questions, my analysis sought to reconstruct and explore the historical development of a particular discourse of governance, which used the compo- nents of techno-science and was applied to culture. He started his political career as the deputy secretary and the secretary of the Party organisation at Vilnius Uni- versity and actively contributed to the purges of the Lithuanian Phi- lology Department at Vilnius University in Considerably more strict control was applied to certain political movements, such as the prohibited Communist Party.

How was the relation between cybernetic techno-science, culture and governance constructed by Soviet Lithuanian scientists, humanities intellectuals and policy makers? From Hope to Discontent: Five years later and here is this book.


That question underlies this study, which deals with the construction of state cultural policy in Lithuania as just such a project of governance and knowledge. The very existence of the extensive administration of the cultural sector, with its appropriate govern- mental agencies, testified to the fact that culture was important for the Soviet state.

Darbas. Vadyba. Gyvenimas by Fabijonas Saulius Butkus

This situation had to change for a number of reasons. For ideological, as well as economic reasons, in the Soviet Union, officially defined culture was produced mainly by formal organi- sations.

Societies arranged discussion clubs, established public reading rooms, initiated studies and publications, organised exhibitions and other arts events, and established other organisations often related to the arts and education. However, Soviet economic logic also consid- ered culture to be a low priority. Setting the Preconditions for the Scientific Governance of Culture Exceptions were made for traditional uses of famous names, for example Trotsky.

Government is the historically constituted matrix within which are articulated all those dreams, schemes, strategies and manoeuvres of au- thorities that seek to shape the beliefs and conduct of others in desired directions by acting upon their will, their circumstances or their envi- ronment.

Weinberger Penguin, New York, This action was rather mysterious. Between and a further 7, copies of publications were withdrawn. According to Marxist theory, the oppressed working class, the producer of real economic value, was especially important.

This butkkus explicates the productive nature of the translation of techno-science into culture: For the historical reasons noted above, upon its birth, the young Lithuanian government did not have a central arts collection, a museum or a higher educa- tion centre: As Ganley noted, both the structure and operation of Gosteleradio were deeply organizacijox secrets until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

A Harvest Book, Organi- zatsionno-pravovye voprosy Moscow: Even if an editor or an author had to face sanctions from the CC ideological committee, the arti- cle would remain in print. Lexington Books, Essays in Hounour of Pekka Pesonen, eds. Expenditures Figure 2. However, a rather vwdyba empirical body produced by the aforementioned historians makes it possi- ble to discern a typologically different relationship between Lithuanian and Soviet state cultural policies prior to World War II.

In the remaining part of this chapter, I will describe the Soviet administration for culture in greater de- tail.

Darbas. Vadyba. Gyvenimas

The Johns Hopkins University Press, Oxford University Press, Nevertheless, the chapter points out that the attitudes of the critics were ambiva- lent towards the techno-sciences. Educated at the Moscow Institute of Fibre Chemical Technologyshe continued her studies at the Higher Party School and became the second secretary of Moscow City the first secretary ina member of the CC since and the Politburo from to The interviews took place in their offices, cafeterias and sometimes homes and usually lasted about two hours, but sometimes longer and were recorded on minidisk and later transcribed.


A wide range of contemporary scholars from various disci- plines, such as Katherine Hayles, Bosse Holmqvist and David Noble drew at- tention to the impact of cybernetics on contemporary notions of control and governance in the neo liberal democratic West.

Inevitably sketchy and simplified, this overview is necessary in order to understand how, on the one hand, the Soviet occupation of Lithuania in brought about totally new methods of cultural policy-making, but on the other, resembled the centuries-old Tsarist repressions. This is demonstrated in Chapter V, which shows how the language of govern- ance or rather management was both politically charged and neutralised in the Soviet Union and the Lithuanian SSR. Harvester Wheatsheaf,2, 3.

It was based on five-year plans further divided into annual and quarterly planswhich specified priorities and targets to be achieved. Actors were the best paid public servants. As they were in charge of some branches of industry, they were legally restricted by centrally devised economic plans.

Prentice Hall,3. It argues that the discourses on Soviet governance of culture gradually evolved from optimistic hopefulness, guided by a belief in techno-sciences, to increasing disillusionment, especially because of the growing awareness of the environ- mental hazards.

As the British cul- tural historian Orlando Figes put it, the entire Soviet regime could be defined by its belief in science and technology. Zakharov, previously the first deputy head of the Department for Agitation and Propa- ganda Agitprop at the Central Committee and, before that, the head of the propaganda department at the Leningrad Party committee.

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