Generalization Aggregation – Learn DBMS in simple and easy steps starting from its The reverse is called specialization where a person is a student, and that. Terms such as superclass, subclass, or inheritance come to mind when thinking about the object-oriented approach. These concepts are very important when. Speculation Specialization and Aggregation in DBMS are deliberation systems used to model data. The reflection is the instrument used to shroud the.

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In the below-mentioned figure, whale, shark, and dolphin are generalized as fish, i. The best way to mode such situations is to use aggregation.

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It breaks an entity into multiple entities rbms higher level super class to lower level sub class. Similarly, in a school database, persons can be specialized as teacher, student, or a staff, based on what role they play in school as entities.

Answered on 24th Jul,95 Views. The ER Model has the capability of articulating database entities in a conceptual hierarchical manner.

Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation Concepts in DBMS

Since the s there has been a rapid amplification in the development of many new database systems that have more demanding database requirements than those of the traditional applications. JavaScript Tutorials jQuery Tutorials. In this way, there are no ascribes particular to cruisers.

The Enhanced ER Model As the complexity of data increased in the late s, it became more and more difficult to use the traditional ER Model for database modelling. Generalization Specialization Aggregration Let’s understand what they are, and why were they added to the existing ER Genwralization.

The Enhanced ER Model

Various semantic data models have been proposed, and some of the most important semantic concepts have been successfully incorporated into the original ER model. In generalization, the higher level entity can also combine with other lower level entity to make further higher level entity. A distinct sub-grouping of occurrences of an entity type that require being represented in a data model. Hence, as part of the Enhanced ER Modelalong with other improvements, three new concepts were added to the existing ER Model, they were: Specialization is a process of identifying subsets of an entity that shares different characteristics.


Generalization is used to emphasize the similarities among lower-level entity sets and to hide the differences in the schema. Responsive Theme powered by WordPress.

Aggregation represents relationship between a whole object and its component. Specialization It is opposite to Generalization. Download our mobile app and study on-the-go.

Aggregation is an abstraction through which generapization are treated as higher-level entities. In simple terms, Aggregation is a process when relation between two entities specailization treated as a single entity. It’s more like Superclass and Subclass system, but the only difference is the approach, which is bottom-up. For example, pigeon, house sparrow, crow and dove can all be generalized as Birds.

Specialization can be repeatedly applied to refine a design schema. For example, the attributes of a Person class such as name, age, and gender can be inherited by lower-level entities such as Student or Teacher.

Generalization is a Bottom up process. In this way, the two deliberation instruments used to model data: To illustrate the specializstion for such a construct, quaternary relationships are used which lead to redundancy in data storage.

Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation in ER Model | Studytonight

Hence, entities are combined to form a more generalised entity, in other words, sub-classes are combined to form a super-class. Specialization is the opposite of generalization.

As mentioned above, the process of generalizing entities, where the generalized entities contain the properties of all the generalized entities, is called generalization. So it is a top-down methodology in which one larger amount substance can be separated into two lower level element. Speculation Specialization is the opposite procedure of Generalization Collection Generalization in DBMS Speculation is an abstracting procedure of review sets of items as a solitary general class by focusing on the general attributes of the constituent sets while stifling or overlooking their disparities.


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It is a top-down approach in which one higher level entity can be broken down specializaion lower level entity. The specialization of student allows us to distinguish among students according to whether they are Ex-Student or Current Student.

It is a top down approach in which we first define the super class and then sub class and then their attributes and relationships. Generalization It is a bottom-up approach in which two lower level entities combine to form higher entity.

The reverse is called specialization where a person is a student, and aggregagion student is Mira. Going up in this speciakization is called generalization, where entities are associated together to represent a more generalized view. Hence, as part of the Specializatiin ER Modelalong with other improvements, three new concepts were added to the existing ER Model, they were:. A generalization is a bottom-up approach. The relationship between a superclass and a subclass is one-to-one 1: Generalization is a process of generalizing an entity which contains generalized attributes or properties of generalized entities.

Aggregation One limitation of the E-R model is that it cannot express relationships among relationships.

Generalization Aggregation

As the basic concepts of ER modeling are often not enough to represent the requirements of the newer complex applications which therefore stimulated the need to develop additional ‘semantic’ modeling concepts. Conglomeration is the procedure of ordering data on an specializatlon, in this way abstracting a larger amount object.

The details of entities are generally hidden from the user; this process known as abstraction. Comments Edit Question Edit Categories.

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