The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .

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In addition to teaching, Torpey also sits on the editorial boards of the journals Theory and Society and Journal of Human Rights. The project has been motivated in considerable part jobn the uneasy feeling that much sociological writing about states is insup- portably abstract, failing to tell us how states actually constitute and maintain themselves as ongoing concerns.

John Torpey : The invention of the passport. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State

In short, according to Codet, only the tiny minority of gens suspects and gens malin- tentionnes could possibly be opposed to passport requirements for travel. The Journal of Modern History. In a further step, Torpey recounts the project of Nazi Germany to identify every subject.

Indeed, I would be delighted if this study were to stimulate studies of systems of documentary controls on movement and identity in other parts of the world and in other periods. In March 1however, the Directory took up a proposal to change that law to make it conform to the fact that the district directories – formerly responsible, along with the municipalities, for giving their recommendation to the departements with respect to the legitimacy of requests for passports for departure from France – had since been sup- pressed.

The process decisively depended on what Gerard Noiriel has called the “revolution identificatoire,” the development of “cards” and “codes” that identified people more or less unambiguously and distinguished among them for administrative purposes.

John Torpey

After some further minor sparring about the inconveniences asso- ciated with the passport regulations, the Assembly adjourned. Passports and Chinese exclusion 96 The “nationalization” of immigration restriction in the United States Sovereignty and dependence: The departmentalization of France was designed to achieve the aim laid out by Sieyes in September In particular, I seek to show that the notion that states “penetrate” societies over time fails adequately to char- acterize the nature of state development, and argue instead that we would do better to regard states as “embracing” their citizenries more successfully over time.


Sciences sociales et histoire 30 March Greer’s estimate thus misleads because it focuses upon the freedom of the French to enter and leave their country rather than on the liberty to move within the Kingdom, which at this point remained very much a live issue – indeed, for most of the French, the primary one.

Jane Caplan ‘s support for this project quickly led to a collaborative undertaking on related issues concerning the prac- tices that states have developed to identify individuals in the modern period, to be published elsewhere.


A Typology of Papers. Those opposed to the resurrection of passport controls took a sharply different view of the probable consequences of their restoration. In particular, the “penetrationist” approach has had little to say about the mechanisms adopted and employed by states to construct and sustain enduring rela- tionships between themselves and their subjects, the “social base” of their 10 COMING AND GOING reproduction.

Noiriel’s writings on the history of immigration, citizenship, and identi- fication documents in France have been a major inspiration for me; the citations of his work in the text point only to the visible peak of an ice- berg of iohn debt.

A detailed examination of the new passport law. Such certificates could be denied to persons torepy a liking for foreigners or foreign customs. Stefano called his friend, bibliotecario straordinario Mario di Napoli, on my behalf, and the rest was smooth sailing.

Gradually, compe- tition among states set in motion processes of centralization that resulted in a winnowing of the number of competitors, such that only those states capable of mobilizing sufficient military and economic resources survived.

In the end, the Assembly granted its president the authority to jihn passports to its members, thus making the liberal choice that free- dom of movement was to be preferred to constraint, even under conditions of substantial domestic political tension. Alongside Christian JoppkeTorpey has written on the legal and cultural integration of Islam into Western liberal democracies, comparing the United States, Germany, France, passprot Canada.

Until that time, it had been thought adequate to identify people mainly in terms of their social station, geographic origins, and the like.

Todd Gitlin also reacted with enthusiasm to the idea of the book. The practice of issuing passports for groups of persons had, according to Broussonet, “given complete liberty to bad subjects. Otherwise, he insisted, these departees might be on their way to join the enemy forces at Coblenz after dissembling about their motives when they originally tbe their passports.


Alternatively, states must be in a position to establish whether or not a would-be entrant matches the criteria laid down for authorized entry into their domains.

This innovative study combines theory and empirical data in questioning how and why states have established the exclusive right to authorize and regulate the movement of people.

The proposed Article 6 would have allowed all French passport bear- ers to move about unhindered only within the district in which they resided.

These controls – Torpey argues – have been essential to states’ monopolization jihn the legitimate means of movement and are therefore a central feature of the modern state and the state system in general. The landless poor would then have work and sustenance, and hence no reason for taking to the roads as they normally did in times of need.

Despite the Assembly’s decisive steps to guarantee free circulation when it adopted the new constitution in Septemberthose involved in constructing the new regime in France recognized that they had to be in a position to “embrace” the subjects of the state when the need to do so arose. The foreigner, increasingly defined exclusively in national rather than local terms, was perceived more and more ipso facto as a suspect. This gap considerably limited the far-reaching claims of the nation state to control the movement of persons in, into, and across its territory far into the 20 th century.

His other publications include Intellectuals, Socialism and Dissent: This would unnecessarily burden the munici- pal officials. Wilbanks Limited preview – The successful monopo- lization of the legitimate means of movement by states and the state system required the creation of elaborate bureaucracies and technolo- gies that only gradually came into existence, a trend that intensified dramatically toward the end of the nineteenth century.

There was an element of sophistry in this argument, of course, but the opponents of the passport law sensed that they were on the defensive. Passport controls, in particular, had been a vital mechanism of domina- tion under the old regime in France, and were tbe regarded as such by those who made the revolution there in the late eighteenth century.

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